Friday, May 24, 2019

Implication of Budget 2013

According to the Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak, who is also Finance Minister, at the Dewan Rakyat on Friday, September 28 tabled that the Budget 2013 themed Prospering The Nation, Enhancing Well-Being of the Rakyat A Promise Fulfilled . 2013 budget was formulated with a focus on improving the documentation standards of people across the country, ensuring sustainable economic return, prudent spending and reduce the countrys fiscal deficit with the overall goal of focusing on the welfare of the people.The Government allow master people get the best services and maximum benefits as a result of the implementation of growing programs and projects in 2013, the global economic environment is judge to improve, economic growth is projected to grow more than strongly at 4. 5 percent to 5. 5 percent. Though this, the first imperative implication is growing economic growth through increased enthronisation activity. Economic growth will continue to be driven by foreign direct i nvestment and domestic. In the first half of 2012, private investment increased to 75. billion dollars from 59. 8 billion dollars in the same period in 2011. This trend is expect to continue in 2013 with private investment is expected to increase to 148. 4 billion dollars. In order to stimulate domestic investment and accelerate the club of Malaysian companies in the global supply chain, the Government has provided funds national Strategic Investments worth 1 billion dollars chthonian the Investment Development office staff of Malaysia. The fund aims to take advantage of outsourcing activities and the acquisition of technology by local companies.In addition, the establishment has also introduced incentives for the acquisition of foreign companies and special tax rates to advance local service providers to merge into larger entities. Besides, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the economic transformation of the country. As to accelerate the growth of SMEs and the expansion of the scope of the industry across the country, a fund of 1 billion dollars will be made available under the SME Development under the operating SME Bank.These measures facilitate the access of SMEs to obtain financing and further develop their business. Next, the second positive implication will be he reduces of citizens warhead especially low income citizens. in term of reduce in burden as in both reducing cost of living and quality of living of Malaysian government provided a program called program Rumah Mesra Rakyat where the NHC will build a list of 21. 000 units for 2013. Under this program also, the NHC will build a kinsperson costing 65 thousand dollars with a subsidy of 20 thousand dollars and interest rate subsidies on loans of 2 percent.In addition, a sum of 543 million dollars will be provided to the National Housing Department implement 45 projects under the Public Housing Program involves 20. 454 housing units will be constructed using the a lter Building System. All residential units will be sold between 30 to 40 thousand dollars per unit than the market price around long hundred thousand dollars per unit. 20 percent of the PPR housing units allocated to civil servants and some of the people with disabilities.Besides that ,everyone wish to own a house so to enable this to happen more First Home Scheme, was launched by the last budget, will be improved by increasing the income limit individual borrowers from 3,000 dollars to 5,000 dollars a month or 10,000 dollars a month for joint loans of husband and wife. In addition, reserve requirements and deposit 3 month minimum period of 6 months work will also be abolished. Other then housing subsidy, 1Malaysia Peoples Aid (BR1M 2. 0) also launched to establish goal of reduce people living cost.RM 250 will be given to individual that beneath 21 years old with income less then RM 2100. Thirdly, Malaysia Budget 2013 also contri scarcees in development of sylvan and indigenous c ommunities. Rural areas will continue to be developed to reduce the gap of urban and rural development. 4. 5 billion dollars will be provided to implement various development projects in 2013 include ,first ,a total of 1. 2 billion is allocated to implement the project 441 km of rural roads and rural roads benefiting 220 thousand inhabitants. Second a total of 1. billion is allocated for base of operations projects rural utilities for water supply projects to 24 thousand households and extension project electricity to 19 thousand households. Third, a total of 137 million dollars allocated for Sustainable rural Program involving 29 villages throughout the country and benefit 38 thousand inhabitants. Major programs include the upgrading of marine products processing plants and food, building a new pier, the formulation of a centre for marketing, improving the package and recreational activities as well as the home stay.Fourth, a total of 88 million is allocated for economic developm ent programs and projects of water supply for indigenous peoples and fifth ,a total of 100 million dollars to supply 40 thousand water tank using rainwater catchment, oddly in remote areas in Sabah and Sarawak. In the other hand, Malaysia Budget 2013 also has some negative implication. First of all, we see that this time the government spending is withal a deficit which mean excess of expenditure over income ,although it decreased compared to last year (2012), from 4. 7% to 4. 0% of a 21. billion once the government accumulated outstanding debt of nearly 503 billion or half trillion for to-16 years in a row since 1997. That amount is 53. 7% of the Gross Domestic Product (gross domestic product or GDP) for 2012. The initial RM1. 8 billion that was allocated to BR1M for 3. 4m households in the 2012 budget ballooned to over RM2 billion for over 4 million households. A country whose GDP is projected to expand by 5 per cent in 2012 should see fewer households earning less than 3000RM. And yet, BR1M recipients are projected to increase to 4. 3 million households with other 2. 7m individuals earning less than 2000RM joining them.Without proper checks and balances, the RM3b that has been allocated to BR1M 2. 0 for Budget 2013 can easily increase to more than RM4b, if not more. The same lack of fiscal prudence could be seen in the expenditure on subsidies. An allocation of RM32. 8 billion was given for subsidies in Budget 2012 but the actual expenditure on subsidies is projected to be at RM42. 4 billion, an increase of RM9. 6 billion or 29. 3 per cent over the original budget If the same kind of trajectory is followed, the RM37. 6 billion which is allocated for subsidies in Budget 2013 could easily increase to almost RM50 billion.Besides that, sugar subsidy reduced by 20sen per kg. Sugar Should be a controlled item but it price has gone up four times, by 20sen per kg on Jan 1, 2010, 25sen on July 18, 2010, 20sen on Dec 4, 2010, and 20sen on May 10, 2011. A remarkabl e adjoin on the property market seen sugar is a common goods that cannot be replace. Government has proposed the real property derive tax RPGT from the disposal of properties made in spite of appearance a period not surpassing ii years from the date of purchase will be taxed at the rate of 15% and at 10% for disposal of property within a period of two to five years.This symbolise an increase on RPGT of 10% is applied to properties held and inclined of within two years, and a rate of 5% was retained for properties sold within the third, fourth and fifth years after purchase and it would give result in a negative impact on the country. As a conclusion, there are both positive and negative implication toward Malaysia Budget 2013 . In my opinion, most of the positive implication are brings short term effect but the some negative implication might cause long term liabilities to our economy.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

A Biography of Indian Yellow Essay

Indian Yellow is a raw pigment which, as the name suggests, originated in India in the 17th atomic number 6 and was use until the early 20th century. Its source remained a mystery for many age. In 1786 the amateur painter, Roger Dewhurst recorded in letters to friends, that Indian yellowish was an constitutional substance made from the urine of animals fed on turmeric (Myers, pg 1). Around this time, the English chemist George Field claimed it was made from camel urine.In 1839, J.F.L. Merimee, denied its association with urine in spite of its odor, citing its origin was a shrub called memecylon tinctorium in his book The Art of Painting in Oil and Fresco, In 1886 the ledger of the Society of arts in London began a systematic inquiry of the pigment, revealing that Indian yellow was manufactured in rural India (in particular in Monghyr, a metropolis in Bengal) from the urine of oxen fed only on mango leaves and water (Finlay, pg 216-217). The collected urine was heated in order t o precipitate the yellow matter, then strained, pressed into lumps by hand and dried, producing foul-smelling hard yellow balls of raw pigment, called purree (Mukharji, pg 16-17). European importers would then wash and purify the balls, separating greenish and yellow phases.It is the mango not the urine thats crucial to the color. The colorant is a magnesium salt of an organic acid released by the mango. Chemically it is magnesium euxanthate, the magnesium salt of euxanthic acid. call for more My Writing Process EssayNaturally, the cows that were exploited by this process were extremely undernourished. In part because mango leaves did not supply the cattle with sufficient nutrients along with the fact that these leaves contain the toxin urushiol, also found in poison ivy. In 1908, British law (which applied to colonized India) prohibited the work of Indian yellow, citing the torture of sacred animals. The pigment is believed to have first been used in Europe by Dutch artists in the 17th century (the Dutch having extensive trading links with India by then) and by the end of the 18th century across Europe in watercolor and oil painting. For the first years of its introduction in the European market, this pigment was simply named after its country of origin, Pure of India(Finlay, pg 209-211). This was further simplified to jaune indien (French), giallo indiano (Italian), Indischgelb (German) or Indian Yellow when translated into other languages (Myers, pg 1).Deep, exceed and luminescent, it was favored for its great body and depth of tone. It had a peculiar characteristic in its watercolor form of fading in artificial light and in the dark but being fairly stable in direct sunlight. In its oil form, it requires one hundred percent for grinding, dries slowly, and the addition of varnish improves its drying, in fact its lightfastness is also improved when it is isolated between layers of varnish.Dutch and Flemish painters of the 17th and 18th centuries favored it for its translucent qualities often using it to represent sunlight. beauteous as the color is, the pigment was said to be foul-smelling in its raw form. In the novel Girl With the Pearl Earring Vermeers patron remarks that Vermeer used cow piss to paint his wife, the pigment referred to was Indian Yellow. By the early twentieth century the pigment was no longer available, although its modern substitutes are clam up sold under the name Indian yellow.Bibliography1. Baer, N.S., Indian Yellow in Artists Pigments, a Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Volume 1, R.L. Feller, Editor, Oxford University Press, New York (1986) 2. Finlay, Victoria, Color A NAtural History of the Palette (2003 edition), Random House 3. Merimee, M.J.F.L., The Art of Painting in Oil and Fresco (2009 edition), Kessinger Publishing4. Mukharji, T.N., Piuri or Indian Yellow, Journal of the Society of Arts (1883-84) 5. Myers, David, Indian Yellow, The Art Blog of David Myers (February 1, 2011) http//toxi cgraphix.blogspot.com/2011/02/indian-yellow.html6. Indian Yellow, Pigments Through the Ages, webexhibits.orghttp//www.webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/history/indianyellow.html

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Apple Inc.

Team Death Spiral examined the stewardship and billet performance of orchard orchard apple tree tree Inc. by under winning a strategical analysis of orchard apple tree Inc. s previous, present and po decennarytial future tense strategic and commercialise performance. The internal workings of the firm were examined to reveal a culture of never- expiration creation and a drudge to create easy to use, life improving fruits. A two tiered collective structure with Steve problems and Tim Cook being at the apex of anagement and a horizont whollyy flat structure of iniquity presidents the decision making process is non complicated by various vertical levels of command and decision making. orchard apple tree Inc. s internal structure has become flexible as divisions atomic human action 18 circumstantial exclusivelyy established to sustain the latest product and maintain a private- go-ahead(a) value. orchard apple trees manufacturing segments were than explored and it was no ted t wear it was not possible to absolutely define a food market which apple consistently performed in. orchard apple tree Inc. s multi-functional product base gave a distinctly indication of the underlying strategic management at play.It was accepted that orchard apple tree has defined its accept market segment, that of mobile electronic devices. The four main strategic management themes of M. E. gatekeeper ( reduce, diffe lockiation and cost leadership), G. Hamel & C. K. Prahalad (structuralist), W. C. Kim and R. Mauborgne (reconstructionist) and J. Ridderstrale and K. Nordstrom (intellect, quaintness and substructure) were examined in light of apple Inc. s to the highest degree recent performance. The Blue sea dodge and the queasy trade Strategy models were found to be the most applicable and helped explained orchard apple tree Inc. s sustained and phenomenal rise in business performance. Finally, strategy recommendations for the future direction of apple Inc were ex plored by the use of a Strategy Canvas. Possible pitfalls and hypothetical futuristic products were also explored. The single most strategic liability set was the departure of the CEO Steve Jobs from apple which could authorisationly be catastrophic if not fatal for the orchard apple tree brand. apple Inc. has transformed everyplace its 30 year creative activity thither welcome been miscell alls in leadership, product types, union logo and name.Apple Inc. experient decline in the early to mid-nineteen nineties but has dated unprecedented issue and success since the return of the founding father figure of Steve Jobs. Yoffie and Kim (2010) elevatedlight the misdirected and turbulent time Apple experienced in the 1990s until the turn around and flip-flop (1998) in ethos/ ism of Apple as purported by Jobs. Jobs aim was to reduce the number of product models, transmute the mode of distribution to big outlets and promote Apple as a hip alternative to other computer brand s (Yoffie & Kim, 2010, p. 4).Apple Inc. s current mission statement states Apple designs Macs, the best person-to-person computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork, and professional softw ar. Apple leads the digital symphony revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and Apps Store, and has recently introduced its magical iPad which is delimit the future of mobile media and compute devices (Apple Inc, 2010c). This mission statement highlights and gives a strong indication of where the strategic direction Apple Inc. ntends to progress not only when do they strive to have the best products but they intend to stretch vertically across product lines. To emphasis this, Ostdick (2010) comments on the face-to-face drive of Steve Jobs and his belief that all product innovations stub be recyc conduct into other projects. The underlying guiding ethos is just because one piece of technology doesnt work in one project, how we screwing potentially use it outside its intended use to produce something new-fangled and successful. Parallel to the financial success of Apple Inc. is the longevity and stability of its board of directors and corporate structure of the firm.There ar s tied(p) members on the board of directors from various professional backgrounds. The av date of referencege tenure of these members is six years with to a greater extent than half sitting for more than ten years (Apple Inc, 2009). Organisational structure is horizontal with Steve Jobs and Tim Cook acting as chief executive and operating officers respectively. Beneath this pinnacle are nine vice presidents who preside everywhere areas such(prenominal) as retail, hardware engineering and marketing ( listen appendix 1 for the current executive structure of Apple Inc. ) (Apple Inc, 2010c).These vice presidents dole out the day to day running of fourteen individual divisions (see appendix 2 for the current orga nisational chart of Apple Inc. ). In terms of strategy Apple Inc. has utilise divisions purely for further development of the iPhone and iPod. The flexibly of the firm is highlighted here with 0 research and development, Apple are prepared to specifically develop these products. It would be analytical to infer when their product life cycles r for each one(prenominal) their pinnacle new divisions may be make to further develop the current products at th time. hat Apple Inc. s culture internally is a positive workplace where generous employee benefits are available. Employees are subjected however to a strict process of morality and business processes outlined in e outline their document line of reasoning Conduct The Way We Do Business (Apple Inc, 2009). Externally Apple Business . Inc. is embracement the latest sustainable practices in various operational areas and hence attempting to improve their triple bottom line (economic, social and environmental) or Corporate Social fun ction credentials (Esty & Winston, 2009).Apple tin educational programs for their staff Esty 2009 . and are engaging the community with educational programs and scholarships (Apple Inc, 2009 Over Apple 2009). the last five years a ethnic transplant has occurred in relation to environmental responsibilities. Apple responsibilities. recycling programs have been established, carbon emissions saving have been implemented upstream and downstream of the supply bowed stringed instrument and a further commitment to produce environmentally safe products (Apple Inc, 2010b). The first challenge in analysing the intentness that Apple operates in is defining that application. Apple has created its own industry of Consumer Technology by choosing to compete in, and redefine segments of more traditional industries. Apple operates in segments of the Computer, Consumer Electronics, Music, Movie/Video, and Tele chats Industries. positioned itself in selected segments of the market. In each i ndustry it has Although Apple has its roots in the Computer Industry it is no longer just counselingsinged on computers. st The change of name in January 2007 from Apple Computers to Apple Inc reflects this change of direction (Honan, 2007). . Despite this Apple generated almost 14 BN USD of sales from personal computers in 2009, its second highest 1 level in history and 32% of the connections total sales. Even in its traditional market segment Apple Inc. does not dominate the market with an estimated 4. 2% share of the global market in 2009 (Yoffie & Kim, 2010).Apple Inc. continues to gain ground, particularly in their office market, the USA. Apple PC sales are estimated to be only 10. % of the US market in the 3 quarter of 2010 (see Appendix 3) (Ash, 2010), up from 8% in 2009 (Yoffie & Kim, 2010), overtaking Acer to become a distant 3rd to Hewlett Packard and Dell Computers. The personal computer industry is a USD $425 BN industry dominated by companies producing what are tr anquillise referred to as IBM compatible political machines that predominantly use Microsoft Windows operating systems. Major industry leaders implicate Hewlett Packard (HP), Dell Computers, Acer, Lenovo is a Chinese comp some(prenominal) that getd the loss making personal rdToshiba and Lenovo. computer business of IBM in 2005. IBM no longer manufactures personal computers. The industry is great deal be characterised as being in a mature growth phase with rising sales and falling bells. Leading industry consultants the Gartner Group call sales growth in unit shipments of almost 20% in 2010 with signifi grasst falls in unit prices (Anonymous (The Australian), 2010). The industry is highly price emulous and fragmented with grand pianos of smaller companies competing with the major players using common commoditised components.Apple stands apart from the pack offering a highly differentiated product, with its own operating system and unique Apple design and style. It focuses on the personal usage market rather than the corporate market and commands premium prices for its products. Despite its small market share general Apple commanded 91% of computers sales over USD $1,000 in 2009 (Yoffie & Kim, 2010). This allows them to maintain industry preeminent margins of 40% in 2009. Apples margins have increased during recent years fleck their competitors have continued to decline (Yoffie & Kim, 2010).The global consumer electronics market is estimated to be in excess of USD $ 700 BN a year (Anonymous, 2010b). Consumer electronics includes entertainment, office productivity and communication equipment. The boundaries of this industry are loosely defined as product innovation and technology but convergence is blurring the edges. Leading Global companies include (by one industry definition) Sony, Toshiba, Panasonic, Samsung, LG, Microsoft, Apple, Intel, IBM and Nokia (The Engineer, 2010). The industry is characterized by product lifecycles which are getting shorte r, nd products more technologically advanced and complex. Your phone is a computer your fridge can connect to the internet. You can determine TV on your computer or phone and watch U-tube on your television The industry is competitive with many global players with established market figurehead being challenged for market share by both other established players and new emerging brands. Prices are being driven down by assertive competition. Manufacturers are seeking to trim down costs with mass production in low cost countries, notably China. In this environment, branding is critical.Products are withal complex for many consumers to rationally compare features, functionality and price in an effective manner. Products are often purchased on the basis of the perceived price performance, with consumers associating with the product brand. Apple is well positioned in this regard with a strong brand associated with Style, Quality, Useability and Cool despite having only a limited id entify of products within this broader industry definition. $ The medication industry is a well-established consumer industry, traditionally fudgeled by the recording companies.Major players Universal Music, Sony Music, EMI and Warner Music controlling in excess of 70% of the industry with a givingr number of small independents making up the rest. Global sales are in order of USD $ 25 Billion in 2009 (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, 2010b). The dominate trend in the industry is the rapid up fill of digital download of music as the consumer preferred method of distribution. This is undermining the power of the recording companies in favour of the internet establish retailers and resulting in revenue contraction. Total recorded music sales evenue has been in decline for the past decade, declining by 7% in 2009. This is despite continued high growth in internet based digital music sales up 12% in 2009. Music sales through digital bring accounted for USD $4. 2 billion of music sales in 2009, representing 27% of global sales growing from a base of just USD $20 million in 2003 (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, 2010a). Apples iTunes is a leading player in the digital sales channel revolution, arguably the industry leader in legal internet music sales. This is the segment of he industry that Apple chose to compete in and redefine for its own purposes. Intellectual property issues remain a major challenge for this industry with internet based peer to peer file sharing significantly eroding industry sales. $ %& The multibillion dollar movie industry is dominated by large movie studios with distribution traditionally handled by theatres, then a secondary market through video/DVD rentals or retail stores and a tertiary revenue stream through television rights. Apple is involved only in the distribution part of the business through film download for rent or sale.This challenges the traditional video store business, with a new model. To date, video downloading has promised more than it has delivered (Kane, 2007). The market is becoming increasingly crowded with an increasing number of companies come in the market including internet heavy weight Google which owns YouTube and retail heavy weight WalMart (Ogg, 2010). Economies of weighing machine make this an industry that favours natural monopolies or oligopolies. duplex large home plate players as well as a myriad of minor companies are jostling for critical mass.As with most internet based businesses price and convenience are the driving factors. Apples assault on the internet movie sale and rental market leverages their success in music with i-Store, their strength in video receptive devices, iPods, iTouch and iPads and established leadership in video processing computers. The software industry has many segments including proprietary operating systems, business applications, personal applications and entertainment applications. Most providers focus on selected sectors where they can establish market leadership.Microsoft focuses on operating systems for PC (Windows) and business productivity tools that run on PCs. IBM focuses on large scale enterprise systems and predominantly business software and integration operates. A plethora of other companies large and small compete for leadership in all the gaps in between. Economies of scale are particularly important as the variable production costs are very low. Apple has maintained its own proprietary operating systems for its computing devices to preserve product differentiation and unique usability features. However this has been at significant evelopment cost. Application development has been left to third parties who compete to provide market leading solutions. With the advent of the Apps Store, Apple has entered the software distribution business with a 30% gross margin, leveraging the enterprise of thousands of independent 2 software developers large and small. By tigh t integration with their systems the App Store provides a captive high margin marketplace for software. This is another niche segment that Apple has chosen to compete where there are synergies with the t existing businesses.By providing a distribution system Apple has been able to encourage more developers to create applications for their computing devices. More applications extend th the functionality and desirability of their products, driving sales. This is a profitable symbiotic relationship. Despite being a relatively small player in the industry segments, Apple is an unquestioned financial success. It is now the third largest order in the world, as measured by market capitalisation, d slow only Exxon Mobil and Petro-China. At the close of vocation on the 12th of November the Apple Inc shares were valued at USD $308. 3 (Refer to Figure 1. ) each, valuing the entire comp connection at over USD $ 282 billion. During the past year the companys shares have increased in value b y over 50% increased (Yahoo Finance, 2010).The stock is trading on a Price to Earnings Multiple of 20. 42 times compared to an industry (Personal Computers) average of 15. 80 times (Stock Call, 2010). The companys high valuation compared to its sales of 3. 5 times can be attributed to the high margin and high growth performance of the business. In the 3rd quarter of 2009 the company reported a net profit margin of 21. 8% compared to an industry average of 4. 53%. Total sales were 67% a year earlier (Stock Call, 2010). On these metrics the company share price does not seem excessive. . 3 Apple Inc. has been defined as being involved in the new technology industry. The products they deliver stretch across multiple industry boundaries some products compete in established markets, others are market leaders in coeval industries spanning product development and product delivery (Yoffie & Kim, 2010). This makes an analysis of Apples competitive strategy challenging and difficult.Singu lar theories may fit individual product lines, but not reflect the true direction that this multi- expressioned company is taking as a whole. Porters (1980) generic theories are an example of this the three strategies of focus, differentiation and cost leadership provide information on specific products such as computers and software but fail to examine products handle the iPad and iTunes (Porter, 1998 see Part 1). An analysis of iTunes best illustrates the timeliness and limitations of the application of the out-dated theory of Porter to Apple Inc. Tunes adopts both a differentiation strategy (by providing the download of music at various download qualities, the ability to download movies and tv shows and combining it all into an easy to use product) and a cost leadership strategy (this is achieved by providing a competitive priced service for the customer, and a cost effective way for Apple to update firmware of its products). Consideration was given to the theories of Hamel & Pr ahalad (1994), however the structuralist approach does not encompass the true nature of Apples efforts over the last ten years.In contrast the reconstructive theories of Chan Kim and Mauborgne (2005) and their Blue Ocean Strategy in particular allow a greater analysis of the strategic positioning instigated by Apple. The Reconstructionists view helps arrest advances made by Apple Inc. in redefining and creating new technology. Utilising Chan Kim and Mauborgnes six principles helps in assessing Apple Inc. s value chain ground substance and their innovation in product development (Chan Kim & Mauborgne, 2005), (Chan Kim & Mauborgne, 2009).To contrast explanations for Apples recent success and to provide analysis for their future the theories of Ridderstrale and Nordstrom (2000) in their ground severance book Funky Business Talent Makes Capital Dance will contrast a different view of competitive strategy. The use of Funky Business as an ideology helps explain the rise of emotional bu ying and how important the utilisation of innovation is in the 21 century business environment. Furthermore, examples will be given to illustrate the synergies which exist between the Funky Business philosophies and the creation of Blue Oceans which ultimately coalesce into a strategic position. t 4 fluent in a Blue Ocean A broad definition of Chan Kim and Mauborgnes Blue Ocean strategy is the ability for a company to feign from a red ocean (an industry where competitors offer similar products or services with the aim to become a cost/market leader) to a docile ocean (an undefined and new industry that may incorporate industries, or create a new industry based on differentiation and lower operating cost) (Chan Kim & Mauborgne, 2005). Apple Inc. is in some respects a contradictory company when it comes to its strategic analysis for its expansive product mix delivers in more than one ocean.For the purpose of this strategic analysis (and recommendations for the future) specific ex amples will be given where Apple Inc. has gained a competitive advantage by defining their own unique Blue Ocean. Chan Kim and Mauborgne (2005) provide a fundamental analytical tool to analyse Apples competitive strategies. This methodological analysis comprises 5 formulation and execution principles to competitive advantage. They are as follows Reconstructing Market Boundaries Focus on the Big Picture, not the Numbers Reach Beyond animate Demand Get the Strategic Sequence Right Overcome Key Organisational HurdlesReconstructing Market Boundaries Apples current resurgence has its beginnings in one of its captain blue oceans i. e. the creation of iTunes changed how people downloaded and listened to music. iTunes was originally used to compete with the illegal download music market, the now defunct Napster being an example. Apples aims were to provide a low cost election for customers, high quality downloads and a music player interface (Chan Kim & Mauborgne, 2005).From an adm inistrative point of view iTunes gave Apple control of digital rights and with five major record labels contributing to the service gave them a distinct competitive advantage (Yoffie & Kim, 2010). Blue Oceans however are not constant and as good ideas make money the competitive advantage for iTunes would have eroded if it did not diversify. To compete with growing technology demands, movies and TV shows were introduced to the iTunes store for purchase and rental. This differentiation created a new Blue Ocean for Apple Inc. / Currently iTunes is the market leader in visual media. Concurrently the iTunes store has the largest downloadable content on the internet . It provides a catalogue of eight million tracks, two thousand films (total downloads daily average are in excess of fifty thousand) and twenty thousand TV episodes (Anonymous, 2010c). Prime Facie analysis reveals that the popularity of iTunes cannot be solely attributed to the product delivery but a concurrent innovation and integration with the portable products that Apple has created over the last decade.It could be argued that the iTunes blue ocean was strengthened by the continual improvement in storage size and screen resolution quality of it iPod and iPhone range. Apple Inc. can now be seen entering its next stage in differentiation. To do this Apple Inc. has introduced the iPad (Feb 2010) revolutionising tablet computing. Building on its iPhone operating system, Apple is attempting to reconnect with business people. Unlike iTunes, iPad services will not be the low price of music downloads.Apple will attempt to lure high profile media conglomerates to allow subscription through their iTunes service at a higher premium price (Yoffie & Kim, 2010). Even though news articles are sold at a premium price the ability to distribute them via iTunes gives Apple Inc. a low internal cost. The most recent venture by Apple Inc. to create a unique user experience the creation of multiplayer online gaming on th e iPhone multiplayer gaming traditionally has been the domain of PC and console developers (Gametraders, 2010). With this venture Apple Inc. opes to refine how people play games with each other. iPhone customers will have the capability to game wherever they can take their iPhone (Apple Inc, 2010a). This strategic move can be seen as a blue ocean for Apple Inc. which will provide a service no other mobile phone provider offers with the quality of the gaming experience. In addition to this Apple Inc. are not actually investing in gaming they are using their iPhone and OS4 operating system as a go between. With other companies vying to have their games on the popular iStore Apple Inc. have created for them a low cost product. 1Focus on the Big Picture, not the Numbers Apples current focus is on being a lifestyle company. It integrates its products and makes them easy for the end user to operate. Steve Jobs openly states that his products start with an idea and a need to alleviate cust omer demands (Ostdick, 2010). This strategic thinking helps formulate new Blue Oceans. It allows companies such as Apple to create products unrestricted by current industry 1 In February 2010, Apple announced that the iTunes store had recorded its 10 billionth song download (Johnny Cashs Guess Things Happen That Way) (Ostdick, 2010). // standards and norms. Greg Joswiak the vice president builds on this philosophy stating they never let . vice-president technology go to waste. In an interview with Reena Jana from the Harvard Business Review blog he generalises on key points concerning the innovative strategies of Apple Inc. Think of this strategy as s Think smart recycling of internal ideas and engineering, especially when cross-pollinated with other cross ollinated products (Jana, 2010). These comments were made in wake of the iPad release.Jana (2010) . demonstrates how the iPad is a hybridisation of the iPhone and a laptop and how the iPhone was just hybridisation an update of th e iPod. Reach Beyond Existing Demand The fundamental tenet of this principle is, Instead of concentrating on customers they (companies) need to focus on non-customers. And instead of focusing on tead customer differences, they need to build on powerful commonalities in what buyers value ( (Chan Kim & Mauborgne, 2005). Apple do this well. It is important to ). ote that there would be a minority of people that do not inority own at least one Apple product. However their competitive strategy in craping beyond existing demand would be to sell products to existing customers in industries they would not normally consider using an Apple product. As stated in Focusing on the big picture tated (above), the ability to build upon and reuse technology in an innovative way is allowing apple to reach new markets and potentially new customers. $% & ( / Get the Strategic Sequence Right Apple Inc. as excelled in their strategic sequencing when it comes to the redevelopment and innovation of t heir portable products. Chan Kim and Mauborgne (2005) stress the importance of price, cost and adoption. Figure 2 (Golijan, 2010) illustrates the chronology of the iPod and Apple Inc. s development of the product. The timeline highlights the quality of sales on the left hand side over the ten year period models evolved and became more get-at-able at varying price points. The success of the products allowed Apple Inc. to diversify and continually improve the product.Within this industry no other competitor has been able to hold consistent sales growth and product innovation as the iPod. Overcome Key Organisational Hurdles Yoffie (2010) clearly highlights the problems Apple has encountered with several changes in management in the 1990s. Since the second coming of Steven Jobs Apple has been a stable entity and has not experienced the organisational problems of the past. Recent economic performance would indicate there has been no leadership or structural change within Apple Inc. It is of interest to note that otentially when Steven Jobs rejoined Apple Computers as the CEO there was a tipping point and a push towards a new Apple Inc. He changed the name, the logo and the ethos of the company and personally pushed Apple Inc. into its current successful position (Jana, 2010). Lets Get Funky As shown above Apple Inc. has exhibited clear Blue Ocean strategy elements during its history, and yet after the dramatic decline during the 90s to the stellar success now being experienced, Apple Inc. has also displayed some new, contemporary strategic rudiments.Examining the quirky and mildly eccentric philosophys of Jonas Ridderstrale and Kjell Nordstrom as extolled in their manifesto Funky Business Talent Makes Capital Dance (2000) it is unmixed that much of the success of the second life of Apple Inc. (circa 2000 to the present) can be attributed to a metamorphosis in business thinking and to these new strategic philosophys and ideas. As an example, central to the Funky Business strategic model are the three core elements of Make Room for Grey Matter in the global village, a companys future depends on the intellect of its teams members.Consumers compulsion, demand a dream, emotion, not products and services Only the Best glance over in the Pot In order to succeed a company must(prenominal) be number one in its field or even better Unique and Permanent Innovation Creativity leads to the redefining of the company and its markets and yet the constantly changing /0 environment of the market implies the constant search for innovation, with innovation being a state of the mind (Laville, 2000).Jobs and his cohorts, since the near fatal demise of Apple Computers in the mid 1990s have reposition and focused the Apple brand with the global lifestyle village in mind (Yoffie Kim, 2010). Central to this theme is the enabling of consumers to engage in quasi-voyeurism, transporting their minds and bodies into Mac/Apple World, experience music, connecting to the internet and most importantly to each other in the Global community. Apple has been an industry leader in the enabling of the consumer to participate in the nett world through a number of primary senses. Steve) Jobs ability to reinventing himself and redefine Apple (in its second incarnation) using ideologies akin to that of the Funky Business model reverberant with the changing landscape brought about by the globalization phenomenon. Thus Jobs ability to connect with the community through technological change, institutional change and the evolution of determine (Young Simon, 2005) allowed Apple to ride the crest of the wave through the first decade of the millennium harnessing the three underlying forces of excess growth of markets (eg.China, India, Russia, etc. ), Ongoing superabundance of supply (which has exceeded demand since the 90s and knows no bounds ) and technological progress (lowers the cost of information, lower barriers and the world becomes a smaller more accessible environment) (Laville, 2000), (Yoffie Kim, 2010). Apples Funky Business strategy is exemplified by its innate ability to understand the dynamics of the world of competition and how it has changed.Accordingly, Apple is able to compete in this new environment by realize that the established and entrenched large scale structures of traditional companies dont hack it and that the single most important facet of this new age of business, is the intellectual capital to identify products and get them into production quickly (Musatov, 2001), examples include Apples industry benchmarking and leadership products iMac (1998), iPod (2001), iTunes (2003), iPhone (2007) and the iPad (2010) (Yoffie Kim, 2010).Thus, it is not the production facility that is the most important, per se, but the minds who operate it. In interviews with Jonas Ridderstrale and Kjell Nordstrom (Anonymous, 2010a) (Anonymous, 2010e), it is clear that one economic model for the 21 century that conceptualize a F unky Business strategy can be illustrated by the strategic direction of Apple over the last decade plus, understanding of st /1 market forces, individual choice (or knowledge of the individual), license to choose and the ability to re-invent or innovate regularly and expediently. Apple Inc. trategy for the iPad ( arrangeed in January 2010) echo with the core elements of creating a new Blue Ocean and Funky Business principles, as described above. These (as expressed by industry commentators) were Apple core strategic elements for the iPad launch consideration of s future applications of current products as they are authentic (innovate), crowd-source hype and ideas around pricing (sell the dream, the emotion, not so much the device) and of course the core Funky Business principle of, Dont focus on being first focus on being the best (Uniqueness) (Jana, 2010).Coincidently, as this new Tablet Blue Ocean gathers depth and breadth for Apple, the competition are not far behind with the announcement of Samsungs new Galaxy Tab in November 2010 (Anonymous, 2010d), the time between launch, maturity and loss of competitive advantage shrinks with each new development and innovation. The Age of Paradox written by Charles Handy (1995) points out that the Sigmoid Growth Curve can be used to maculation out, the life of any organism, life cycle of a product or the life of an organisation.Every new life, organisation, project, or initiative, depresss with some faltering at the start, grows, matures, declines and ultimately perishes. If this was the only underlying concept to this ideological graph it would not be of any use, but rather, the positive and encouraging use of this model is that a firm can proactively start its own new sigmoid curve in any new area it wants rather than watching the old curve maximise, then decline.During any new development phase an organisation will experience what is known as a dip or a setback this can be due to a lack of resources, loss of direction, ineffectiveness, poor productivity and/or loss of a competitive advantage. This is completely normal and team morale must remain high through this temporary stage known as dipping Every time there is a new growth curve (new idea, . change in goals, new product, etc. ), it intercepts with the old Sigmoid Curve, and either climbs or descends but ultimately the cycle of a major dip will commence associated with ccompanying anxiety and setbacks. / The dip can represent a significant challenge for any organisation, as it was for Apple Inc. with a loss of direction between 1985 until declination 1997 with several changes of CEOs at the helm (Scully, 1985 1993) and the (Spindler and Amelio years 1993 1997) (Yoffie & Kim, 2010). Apple management, you could say, went through a case of Paradigm Block the inability or refusal to see beyond the current models of thinking (JCU, Competitive strategy course notes, session two slide 11). * & + , & & * There are different e ras of product interests and management change that Apple has gone experienced its inception in the 1980s when they launched the Apple 1. Mapping the most recent period of Apples growth on a strategic canvas, from the launch of the iMac in 1998 through to the iPad launch (2010) we can visualize a series of interconnected sigmoidial curves gradually increasing with each new innovation and product launch, as shown in Figure 3.In fact, the gradual treadline / ncreasing to the right in Figure 3 reflects a buoyant and productive company with clear growth from strategic product development, delivery and acceptation (depending on the market KPI used). Presently, given the rapid development by other competitors in the tablet market, Apple Inc. would need to accelerate innovation and product delivery within the next 6 12 months to avoid another dip and loss of competitive advantage. This may require a change or transition in new management and of course a new updated product e. g. pdated iphone from 4 to 5 with more capabilities and apps (See Figure 4 Strategy canvas). . * &/ &0 1 & Future strategy scenarios which Apple may need to engage in order to reinvent itself in the ensuing post 2010 era are many and varied. Given Apples history to date and without climbing the walls of the Apple head office and being a fly on the wall it is foolish to predict what Apple may come up with next. They will however need to improve their product range or innovate around their range of iPhone, iPod, iTunes and iPad etc. o maintain market capital. They need to be constantly innovative and invest in their R&D department to have any chance of keeping the current Blue Oceans, Blue, and require time (which is no luxury in the Funky Business world of the 21st century), to develop new Blue Oceans. Potentially Apple could develop a strategy to have a lifestyle package called Apple iHome that would be able to accommodate the current avant garde movement of the new energy gurus that are en vironmentally friendly and the tech heads that enjoy the Apple brand.The iHome could be similar to the CBus system, Smart system or Building system as they are commonly known, they could /2 incorporate their existing range and facilitate new ideas such as an iPhone that has a de novo hitch which instead of using an security access card or conventional key you just swipe your iPhone to unlock your car, house front door or office. The CBus system can work in conjunction with, home appliances such as air-conditioning, automated windows, lights, security video and irrigation, effectively generating a smart home or iHome.You can remotely set up your home with the use of your iPhone through the net, and be able to monitor your home when you are away. The innovative potential of the iHome package is endless but the pitfalls may include, acceptance by the market, technological maturity of the appliances in question and the competitive advantage or market acceptance of these new out there products. In essences, it would be foolhardy to recommend a strategy for Apple post 2010, in that Jobs and his self-proclaimed mobile-devices company are still delivering, still leading industry segments theyApple Inc.A. Company Industry Position Apple is the iconic company behind the mouse-driven Macintosh computer, the phenomenal iPod music-player and the recently launched iPhone. The companys marked inventiveness keeps it in the lead (Economist. com website) and secures its place in the industry. Apples relentless efforts and continual investments in research and development are seen to usher in more innovative breakthroughs that will further fuel the companys further growth and market expansion.B. Industry Characteristics. With its founder, Steven Jobs, at its helm, Apple creatively designs personal computers, portable digital music players and mobile communication devices and proceeds to manufacture and market them. The company as well offers to sell and to service related soft ware, peripherals and networking solutions. (Google Finance website) Apple has such an immense following that is made up of the individual consumers, the small and mid-sized business (SMB) enterprises, the education sector, the government agencies and the creative consumers. (Apple Inc. 008 10-K) The last mentioned pertains to Apples special niche market composed of young and trendy people who can afford to discard relatively new gadgets for want of more updated versions of the same products.The more recent ventures of the company include the selling of a myriad of products manufactured by other companies specifically to cater to such special market niche. These products include application software, printers, storage devices, speakers, headphones, accessories and peripherals of all sorts, and digital content that are all tailored for the Mac, iPod and iPhone. Apple Inc. 2008 10-K) Apple has an established market all around the world.It has set up a dynamic marketing network throu gh its online stores, retail stores, direct sales force, and third-party wholesalers, resellers, and value-added resellers. (Apple Inc. 2008 10-K) It should not come as a surprise to know that Apple puts up with a lot of aggressive competition in all the markets it caters to markets for computers, digital music devices, mobile communication gadgets, all the related paraphernalia and for the services attached to these products. Apple Inc. 2008 10-K) But no matter how stiff competition can be, Apple has emerged as an undisputed market leader. In fact, Apple has reaped increased earnings this economically difficult year (2008) while most of other companies incurred huge losses. In the same tune, Apple offered last Black Friday only 8% off its new MacBook, 4% off a 20-inch iMac, 5- 8% off iPods and none off iPhones while analysts predicted discounts to reach 15% (Frommer, Yahoo Finance webpage). Apple is obviously not keen on competing based on prices.As the company behind such theme song products as iMac, iPod and iPhone, Apple can well afford to price its products higher without having to worry about losing the market to competitors offering cheaper products. Technology and its optimization are among the factors behind Apples success. Its products are deemed new technology and the technological aspects of its products are optimized for exclusivity. Thus, users of any one of Apples products are bound to be captured clients for the others in the companys menu.The technological inter- relatedness of Apples products presents a distinct advantage that it is wisely making the most of. Apples products are theoretically homogeneous the market is awash with all kinds of computers, music-players and mobile phones. But then, such products are more considered as rather unique. Author McNees has written that in a mature market with highly homogeneous products, well-executed small differences can make a given product unique and sought after. Indeed, the leverage brought on by Apples industrial-design machine makes its product stand out in the market. This constitutes another major advantage enjoyed by the company. Meanwhile, there are also serious disadvantages that Apple is saddled with. For one, the company is highly susceptible to the adverse effects of a prevailing bad economic condition which both causes the market value of the companys shares to take a dive and substantially reduces the earning and spending capacity of its market.Apple also happens to be in the middle of a litigation arising from its past stock option granting malpractices. Adverse determinations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) at the conclusion of the investigation that it is conducting will materially damage the companys name, financial condition and operating results. (Apple Inc. 2008 10-K) (Please see II to IX and a portion of X in the Excel document) X.Based on the foregoing, I do not recommend that the 10,000 shares of Apple be purchased now. I would reco mmend keeping it as cash and then buying the Apple shares when the macro-economic factors affecting the finance world and especially the stock markets have begun to improve. At this point, the market can generally do worse and Apple might just go with such downturn with no sufficient ammunition like significant good news available.Works CitedInnovation Lessons from Apple. Economist.com. 7 June 2007. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 26 November 2008 . U.S. SEC Form 10-K of Apple Inc. for Fiscal Year ending September 2008. Apple Inc. 26 November 2008 http//www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/10/21results.html.Frommer, Dan. Apples Black Friday Sale No 15 Percent Discout. Yahoo Finance. 28 November, 2008. Yahoo 30 November 2008 http//finance.yahoo.com/tech-ticker/article/136179/Apples-Black-Friday-Sale%3A-No-15-Percent-Discount.Apple Inc. Google Finance. 29 November 2008 .McNees, Donald. Hat trick retaining customers, finding growth and achieving attractive returns are not easy in straig htaways mature financial markets, but a handful of companies are doing all three. The Free Library by Farlex. 29 November 2008 http//www.the freelibrary.com/Hat+trick%3a+retaining+ customers%2c+ finding+growth+and+ achieving-a0158908311.White, Gerald, Ashwinpaul Sondhi and Dov Fried. The Analysis and Use of Financial Statements. New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998.Brigham, Eugene and Joel Houston. Fundamentals of Financial Management. Orlando, FL The Dryden Press, 1998.Apple Inc.Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing consumer electronics and software products. It was established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, and incorporated on January 3, 1977. The companys hardware products include the Macintosh line of personal computers, the iPod line of portable media players,the iPad line of tablets, and the iPhone line of mobile phones. Apples software products include the OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, and the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software.As of 2008, Apple Inc had acquired blackjack oak companies, purchased a stake in two companies, and made five divestments most of them were software companies. Apple had not released the financial details for most of these mergers and acquisitions. Apples business philosophy is to acquire small companies that can be easily integrated into existing company projects. 4 For example, Apple acquired Emagic and its professional music software, Logic Pro, in 2002. The acquisition led to the creation of the digital audio workstation software, GarageBand, now part of the iLife software suite.The company made its first acquisition on March 2, 1988 when it purchased Network Innovations. It has also made five divestments, all in the 1990s, in which parts of the company are sold to another company. The companys largest acquisition was the purchase of NeXT in 1996 for US$ cd million. In the 2 000s, Apple made the most acquisitions in a single year in 2002, with six. In the 2010s, so far the most acquisitions in a single year is 2013, with 10. Of the companies that Apple has acquired, 37 were based in the US.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Social Psychology Definition Paper

With only the unifying concept of sociable fundamental interaction, social psychological science occupies a no-mans land somewhere between psychology, sociology, physiology, and evolutionary theory in the uncultivated areas of the social sciences (Harold, 2000).Biology offers up the principles of natural selection and adaptation as causal explanations for everything from human mating practices to index finger length, and sociology offers explanations for social structure and organization it is to social psychology that falls the task of explaining how people think about, affect, and interact with one an some other on a psychological, biological, and social level (Myers, 2008 Pinel, 2007).If genetic and biological predisposition is the violin and environmental factors the violinist, then the bow of social interaction is the instrument by which the two conjugate to create music for example cognition and behaviour. Though, in light of an examination of the main ideas and research met hods of social psychologyas well as a comparison between related heavenssthe particular function of social interaction, as it relates to biology and psychology, comes into focus.Main Ideas of affectionate Psychology. companionable psychologists study a set of strategies for answering questions related to attitudes and beliefs, the way we construe our world, and conformity and independence rather than simply an objective compilation of findings. around of the main ideas that social psychology seeks to address are 1) the construction of our social reality 2) social intuition 3) how social influences, in-person attitudes, personality, and biology shape our behavior and 4) how social psychologys principles can be applied in everyday life (Myers, 2008).The construction of our social reality rests on the materialistic laying claim that an objective world exists quite separate from our subjective interpretation of that world, but that we can only view reality through with(predicate) the lens of our beliefs and values. Moreover, it is clear that the machine of social intuitionautomatic processing, heuristics, and implicit memorycan be very powerful when utilize for fast and frugal snap judgments but it could in addition be perilous when to a greater extent reasoned thinking is required.Our behavior is shape by many influences that can be external and internal. We are a social animal, which means that our cultural predispositions define our circumstances. It is also apparent that our attitudes and personality play a significant role in shaping behavior as well. sometimes offsetting and sometimes reinforcing social pressures. Above all else, the idea that we are bio-psycho-social organisms operating on several levels and at the bequest of many influences assists in explaining the multi-verse of human behavior.At last, the practical application of social psychologys analytical tools and explanations to the subjective beliefs, attitudes, and relationships of ever yday life can help people know themselves better, think smarter, and sour better decisions. The specific means by which social psychologists ascertain the aforementioned analytical tools and explanations is encapsulate in the implementation of research Methodology Research Methods of Social Psychology.There is three main avenues through which social psychologists can elucidate the facts of individualist social interaction 1) correlation coefficient research 2) observational research and 3) comply research. The very basis of the scientific method is the postulation that a theory can be explain or predicted by means of hypothesis testing, through the medium of observable events. Correlation research seeks to explain naturally occurring relationships among variables, but does not have the ability to differentiate causation between variables.For instance, Einwohner (1999) could show that personal identification as an activist and collective identification with a group are highly cor relate with protest behavior, but that the formers do not necessarily cause latter. However, through the instrument of time-lagged correlations it could be determine. Variables came first in a sequence, but it cannot be determine which variable constitutes the cause and which variable constitutes the effect. On the other hand, experimental research is uniquely design to isolate and manipulate variables to the end of illuminating causation.Experimental research accomplishes this huge feet by the use of nonsymbiotic variables, the manipulated experimental factor and dependent variables, the measured factor that changes as the independent variable is manipulate. By keeping the dependent variable constant and changing only the independent variable, social psychologists can isolate the exact effect that the first has on the second. Finally, bailiwick research uses random sample, a method by which every fragment of a group has equal chance of inclusion, to extrapolate the results of a representative group onto a population.It is important to note that survey research is only meant to secernate present variables and opinions, rather than predict the future likelihood of variables and opinions. Also the effect of question ordering and wording, response options, and unrepresented samples shows the possible pitfalls of bias that can affect survey results. Comparison between Related Fields The field of sociology overlaps with social psychology in some areas but sociology is primarily concern with how groups and societies interact at the socialist level, and social psychology is mainly involved with the individual psychology of social interaction.Also of consequence, is the general observation that sociology relies heavily on survey research and correlation research whereas, social psychology takes into account a wealth of experimental methodology as well (Kearl, 2009). On the other end of the spectrum, clinical psychology overlaps with social psychology in that the y both depend heavily on experimental research to verify their perspective hypotheses. The branch of general psychology ordinarily referred to as personality psychology differs from social psychology by its emphasis on the difference between individuals rather than the effect that individuals have on separately other.So to summarize, sociology overlaps with social psychology on the left because they both study social interaction, clinical psychology on the right because they both make lumbering use of experimental research to validate their hypotheses, and personality psychology in the main because they both seek to understand the individual. Furthermore, sociology differs from social psychology because the former is more dependent on co relational and survey research, and social psychology differs from personality psychology in the emphasis of individual interaction over individual difference, respectively.Conclusion In conclusion, the conglomeration of research areas and method ologies that social psychology occupies is cosmopolitan and parsimonious in scope and applicability, meaning that even though social psychology be concern with several areas of research the field is still dedicate exclusively to understand how people think about, affect, and interact with one another on a psychology, biological, and social level.The practical working out of the field of social psychology in the area of research specifically encompasses the subjects of social intuition, the applicability of the fields principles on everyday life, the construction of our social reality and what forces influence and shape our behavior. The field of social psychology takes advantage of experimental research, survey research, and federation relational research to confirm hypotheses concerning the abovementioned subjects.

Monday, May 20, 2019

High School Conformism Essay

Throughout majority of my high school life, I always questioned wherefore things operated the way they did. Being forced to go to a place, or my parents could possibly go to jail. To be in force(p) it sort of felt like a indoctrination. Going there I noticed everything was controlled and different kind groups where created based on different peoples personalities. The irony of it all is that from a young age school seemed to punt individuality, yet hypocritical policies such(prenominal) as school uniforms still took place later in the geezerhood.I questioned why there was so much conformitywhy was everyone so worried about adequate in? While I cant be the voice for every-ones reasoning behind compeer hug. I can give my ingest reason for occasionally feelings of peer pressure. The first 2 years of high school felt very much like a fight for my individuality. Id find multiple ways to make myself feel as if I was different for instance reservation modifications to my uniform.I also would follow subculture Stereotypes, although at the time I didnt realize it was simple was pressure The pressure to pull out-of-door from what I considered social emptiness. This was a phase thankfully, and thankfully I soft I began to realize I was essentially doing what other students where doing, just now strangely for the opposite reasoning(to get away from conformism).Id say its a great learning experience, and simply put. The best way to sift for individuality is not striving for individuality. When you force yourself to be different, weather it be following a subculture (beyond your own personal beliefs), or not liking a ideology without doing your own research. Youll definitely fall into the ignorance of conformism.after coming to these conclusions, I decided to become more social experiencing new things so I could remove a opinion, rather than stagnate in ignorance. Ive learned a lot in regards to life, but most importantly I learned a lot about myself. I can u ltimately say that I am a individual. I believe high school has definitely had a impact on me, although Im sure it wasnt there intention to give me such enlightenment.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Albert Camus’ novel, The Stranger Essay

Albert Camus novel, The Stranger, strongly resembles the concepts of absurdism, the efforts of humanity to find message in the universe all conk out because no such means exists. Life just has no meaning or purpose. Camus accepts adept fatal thing, death. The idea that every unrivalled will meet death, then everyones tone is equally meaningless. The inability to find meaning in action is non logical impossible but rather humanly impossible. The title, The Stranger, is significant towards Meursaults character in the book because he sees himself as a stranger in the world. It seems to be a nickname for him. He only shares certain things and keeps everyone at a distance. Society does non appreciate him worry their own he does not conform to their ideas and rules.The title is also a reflection of the author because when he wrote the book, no one truly knew the philosophical views of the absurd. The idea that things sometimes happen for no reason, and that occasions sometimes ha ve no meaning to anything in life is disruptive and threatening to company. Meursault seems to be the only one who thinks he has the freedom to do whatever he wants and therefore he does not preoccupy himself with what social club has set as the norm. An interesting relationship is between Maman and Meursault. In the beginning of the novel, Maman passed away and Meursault seemed to show no emotions towards her death. He accepted that she died and moved on.He knew that putting her in the Morengo Home was the best for her. Meursault tells his boss that is not his fault that Maman died. Throughout the novel, he contemplates memories of her and what he knew about her. When he is sentenced to a horrible fate, he understands his grow more than ever. Meursault knows why she wanted to be around people who cared and loved her when she died. He realizes that she understood what life was really ilk similar to him. At the end, he knows that she left this world just like he is going too, mea ningless and purposeless.Albert Camus novel, The Stranger, strongly resembles the concepts of absurdism, the efforts of humanity to find meaning in the universe all disclose because no such meaning exists. Life just has no meaning or purpose. Camus accepts one requisite thing, death. The idea that everyone will meet death, then everyones life is equally meaningless. The inability to find meaning in life is not logical impossible but rather humanly impossible. The title, The Stranger, is significant towards Meursaults character in the book because he sees himself as a stranger in the world. It seems to be a nickname for him. He only shares certain things and keeps everyone at a distance.Society does not appreciate him like their own he does not conform to their ideas and rules. The title is also a reflection of the author because when he wrote the book, no one truly knew the philosophical views of the absurd. The idea that things sometimes happen for no reason, and that occasions s ometimes have no meaning to anything in life is disruptive and threatening to society. Meursault seems to be the only one who thinks he has the freedom to do whatever he wants and therefore he does not preoccupy himself with what society has set as the norm. An interesting relationship is between Maman and Meursault.In the beginning of the novel, Maman passed away and Meursault seemed to show no emotions towards her death. He accepted that she died and moved on. He knew that putting her in the Morengo Home was the best for her. Meursault tells his boss that is not his fault that Maman died. Throughout the novel, he contemplates memories of her and what he knew about her. When he is sentenced to a horrible fate, he understands his fuss more than ever. Meursault knows why she wanted to be around people who cared and loved her when she died. He realizes that she understood what life was really like similar to him. At the end, he knows that she left this world just like he is going too , meaningless and purposeless.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

General Internet Skills

General earnings Skills Using the Internet for Academic Purposes As a student I need to look at general internet skills to bear at the University of Phoenix. These skills include ? Understanding what the purpose of the browser is. ? Understands the general structure of a website address. ? Understands the key features of a web page. ? Understands browser features such as address bar, home buttons, history, etc. ? Knows how to use key spoken language in a simple search. ? Understands how to navigate and use the University of Phoenix Student Portal. ? Understands how to choose a randomness from a credible website. Knows how to cite any electronic references from information used. Appropriately Communicating with Different Audiences As a student of University of Phoenix, it is important that I learned how to communicate with different audiences.I can do this by using formal communion. It is important that I communicate with the instructors in a formal way. Formal communication is very professional. Students should not speak with instructors as they would their family members and friends. Students should be very respectful when speaking with instructors, being learn and specific, leaving no room for misinterpretation. pic University of Phoenix and University Library Resources The University of Phoenixs mission is to help students contact their professional closings, ameliorate the productivity of their organizations, and provide leadership and answer to their communities. They strive to do this by providing regain to higher education opportunities that enable students to achieve these goals. Since becoming a student at the University of Phoenix, I pass riposten advantage of the resources offered in the Library. I giveing continue to use the resources throughout my journey at University of Phoenix.The University offers extensive contents and services for research, media library, burden for writing excellence, Center for mathematics excellence, and P hoenix Cargoner Services. The Center for writing excellence offers different tutorials and guides for student improvement, they are very useful. It also offers WritePoint. WritePoint is a review service that is available to students and also faculty. It anyows a student to submit a paper and the system automatically reviews it and offers suggestions for improvements. on with the WritePoint, the Center for writing excellence offers a Plagiarism Checker.It helps the student understand where they are with plagiarism when they are doing an essay. The University Library offers peer reviewed academic journal. Many instructors prefer for students to use research information from the University library. The University of Phoenix offers many a(prenominal) other resources that are useful. All of them are great to use, so I give continue to dish out advantage of them all. pic Upholding Academic Honesty It is important as a student at the University of Phoenix to hold academic honesty. As a student I will continue to be original when completing assignments.The University Of Phoenix Student Code Of Academic Integrity states that Academic dishonesty threatens the integrity of individual students as well as the Universitys academic community. A sign of academic dishonesty is plagiarizing. I will continue to remain original and use the plagiarism checker. pic Setting and Achieving Goals As a full epoch student with a full snip job, I had to learn to set short term and ache term goals. It is important to set goals because it allows me to get break in results. It puts me on the fast track and it also allows me to give way smarter.I set goals because I am turn ining to get a better job to provide better for my family. I ease up just completed my short term goal, which was to complete the Effective Teaching educational activity so that I can gain experience in teaching in the classroom. Throughout the continue of the time here at University of Phoenix, I will cont inue to set goals and achieve them. My main goal is to complete school and earn an Associate in Elementary Education. pic Managing Time Wisely I have had a tough time adjusting to the online school environment. I am still learning how to manage my time wisely.I always try to evaluate my schedule and how I slip by my time. I school a troika shift job, so I spend most of my time sleeping throughout the day. I have been told that I need to have at least 24 hours a week to study. Although it is hard for me to spend 24 hours because of my job, I do try to do at least 15 hours. I will start to use my time wisely on my days off. I will try to withhold my schedule clear so that I can concentrate on my school assignments. I will also prioritize and try to get organized. I will be sure to not try to complete every assignment all at once. I will be sure to work on assignments when I am not tired.I will also be sure that I am in a quiet and homely environment. I will be sure to use all of these tips in my future classes. pic Fostering reading comprehension and retention In order to read effectively, I must follow the SQ3R guide. This guide provides the reading and learning strategy that helps me think critically. I will sharpen on key points in the readings. In order for me to follow along with my readings, I will be sure to highlight important notes. I will make sure that I am in a quiet area so that I can avoid distractions. Choosing the right environment move to read is important.All of these tips will help me in my future classes and in my career. pic Adapting work habits to fit your personality I think that knowing my strengths and weaknesses help me understands where I need to apply myself more. With my personality, I am more comfortable listening to music while I am studying. I also like to be in an environment away from other people. I cannot concentrate if I have others around me talking. I take breaks when I am studying because if I sit in one spot too lo ng, then I lose focus and concentration. I will continue to apply my personality to my work habits because it helps me improve my studies.